Фрэнсис Гальтон
Ричард Хосте: Обзор монографии Фрэнсиса Гальтона "Наследственность таланта, ее законы и последствия"

Оригинальное эссе было опубликовано 31 октября 2009 года в Западном Обозревателе.Перевод Романа ФроловаПрисутствие в ноосфере Западной цивилизации общеизвестного знания о том, что «подобное производит подобное», а также всевозможных теорий наследственности, можно отследить по меньшей мере до эпохи Платона. Испокон веков люди замечали, что дети выглядят и ведут себя так же как и их родители. Но лишь после публикации «Происхождения Видов» Чарльза Дарвина в 1859 году, вопрос о том, к каким последствиям для человечества может привести существующий характер воспроизводства населения, занял важное место в публичной интеллектуальной дискуссии.Но до того как начать обсуждение пользы евгеники, необходимо было точно установить, передается ли по наследству интеллект и прочие качества личности. Это и попытался сделать сэр Фрэнсис Гальтон, крупный английский ученый и кузен Дарвина, в своем труде «Наследственность таланта, ее законы и последствия», опубликованном в 1869 году. Позже, в 1883 году, Гальтон изобретет и введет в обращение термин «евгеника».В первом же параграфе книги Гальтон разъясняет научные и политические цели своего труда: «В этой книге я предлагаю доказательства того, что природные способности человека передаются по наследству в силу тех же самых законов, которые определяют форму и физические признаки обитателей всего органического мира. Следовательно, точно так же, как методами тщательной и умелой селекции в рамках естественных ограничений удается получить стабильную породу собак или лошадей, обладающих особенными способностями к бегу или к чему-либо еще, представляется вполне возможным произвести высокоталантливую расу людей путем рассчитанных браков в течение нескольких последовательных поколений… Я прихожу к выводу, что каждое поколение людей обладает чрезвычайно большой властью над врожденными талантами последующих поколений, и утверждаю, что нашим долгом перед человечеством является исследование границ этой власти, и ее мудрое использование таким образом, чтобы, без неумных последствий для ныне живущих, как можно значительнее улучшить будущие поколения Земли.»На чем Гальтон в своем труде не заостряет внимания, так это на том, как из точки А прибыть в точку Б. Гальтон полагает само собой разумеющимся, что если талант определяется наследственностью, то практическое применение того комплекса методов, который он позже назовет евгеникой, является желательным.  Фотографические автопортреты Гальтона. Поскольку автор работал в эпоху до изобретения IQ тестов и исследований усыновления неродных детей, то чтобы продемонстрировать доминирование природы во влиянии на личность человека, Гальтону пришлось подойти к задаче творчески. Гальтон тщательно изучал биографии выдающихся людей и исследовал насколько часто, по сравнению с общей популяцией, среди их близких родственников встречаются выдающиеся личности. Критерием «близкородственности» были пределы прадед-внучатый племянник (1/8 общей крови) или более близкое родство. Он был первым, кто использовал статистические методы для исследования различий между людьми.Самой первой задачей его исследования стала выработка критериев по определению «выдающегося» человека. Используя биографическое пособие «Персоны нашего времени», Гальтон нашел 850 британцев в возрасте старше 50 лет. Из них, он выделил 500 человек как «однозначно хорошо известных литературно- и научно-образованной публике». Поскольку в Великобритании того времени обитало около двух миллионов мужчин данной возрастной категории, выдающиеся люди встречались с частотой 500 на 2,000,000 или 250 на один миллион.То, что Гальтон использовал только 500 человек, а не 850, является на мой взляд достаточно произвольным выбором, однако отношение выдающихся к невыдающимся людям, полученное при использовании первого числа, совпадает с результатом, выведенным Гальтоном при анализе некрологов за 1868 год в газете Times.Три личностных качества, свойственные «выдающимся» людям - это интеллект, энтузиазм, и способность к упорной тяжелой работе. Гальтон обнаружил, что в личностных характеристиках, которые варьируют в популяции, большинство людей концентрируется вокруг средней величины признака. Методом статистического анализа Гальтон распределил людей на разные классы, населенность которых уменьшалась по мере удаления от средней величины признака.   Классификация людей Гальтона по признаку натурального таланта Поскольку 250/1,000,000 = 1/4,000, Гальтон не рассматривает никого ниже класса F. Выдающиеся люди - это не обязательно те, чей коэффициент интеллекта встречается лишь в одном из четырех тысяч случаев (IQ примерно 150), но те, кто обладает настолько редко встречающейся комбинацией интеллекта и трудовой этики. Если три эти черты личности передаются по наследству все вместе, то представляется совершенно логичным, что они наследуются и по отдельности, что полностью соответствует результатам современных психометрических исследований.Гальтон отвергает пороговую теорию человеческого величия, которая предполагает, что для успеха на определенном уровне необходима скорее удача, чем способности. «Каждый педагог знает, насколько сложно внедрять абстрактные концепции, даже самые простейшие, в головы большинства людей, насколько слаба и неуверенна их умственная хватка, насколько легко их запутать, и насколько они неспособны к точности и здравости рассуждений. Часто бывает так, что человек, сведущий в каком-нибудь научном предмете, становится свидетелем того, как посредственные люди обсуждают между собой то, что они вынесли из какой-либо лекции по этому предмету, скажем, из лекции в Королевском Институте, где в течение часа их внимание было приковано живым, ясным и понятным изложением, проиллюстрированным превосходными экспериментами, после которой эти слушатели были совершенно удовлетворены и благодарны за прекрасный материал. Положительно, бывает просто больно слушать, что и как они рассказывают друг другу. Их воспоминания представляют собой хаос, сплетенный из обрывков знаний и недопонимания, некое подобие формы и характера которому придает их собственное воображение, формируя представление, бесконечно далекое от того, которое намеревался донести до аудитории лектор. При тщательном измерении средняя сила ума даже так называемой хорошо-образованной публики оказывается смехотворно малой.»Человеку с высшим образованием выпускник средней школы покажется простаком, ну а выдающийся врач не заметит между ними никакой разницы. Во введении к собранию статей выдающегося физика, лауреата Нобелевской премии, Вилльяма Шокли, Артур Дженсен написал, что он сам часто бывал иногда устрашен мощью интеллекта Шокли. Сам Дженсен является выдающимся психологом Калифорнийского университета в Беркли, и по праву считается гением в своей области. Очевидно, что разница между замечательными интеллектами в социальных и естественных науках достаточно велика, чтобы быть заметной на каждом уровне. Родственники выдающихся людейВ своем трактате, Гальтон классифицирует выдающихся людей Великобритании в соответствии с их талантами: "Судьи Англии" в период между 1660 и 1865 годами, "Государственные деятели", "Полководцы", "Писатели", "Ученые", "Поэты", "Музыканты", "Художники", "Теологи", "Выдающиеся гуманитарии Кэмбриджа", "Гребцы", и "Борцы Северного Графства". Выдающиеся люди рассматриваются раздельно по категориям или вместе, в зависимости от цели анализа.На первый взгляд, судьи представляют необычную группу знаменитостей, но в конце 19-го века число судей было гораздо меньшим, чем в наше время. После наложения некоторых ограничений, Гальтон выявил 286 выдающихся судей в период между Реформацией и 1865 годом. Из них, у 109 были выдающиеся родственники. Эти 109 судей входили в 85 семей. Если в одной семье было больше, чем один выдающийся представитель судейской профессии, то дистанция по родству отсчитывалась от наиболее знаменитого.Точно также рассматриваются остальные категории выдающихся людей. Гальтон установил, что с удалением от выдающегося судьи, число знаменитых родственников уменьшается. В 85 семьях, из которых вышли выдающиеся судьи, было обнаружено 22 замечательных отца, 13 дедов, и 2 прадедов. И это несмотря на то, что каждый выдающийся судья имел одного отца, двух дедов, и четырех прадедов.Похожие результаты были получены и для остальных групп. Каждая глава книги сопровождается приложением, в котором перечисляются мужчины в талантливых семьях с краткими биографическими заметками о каждом, вместе со списком их выдающихся родственников, также с биографиями. Подобная скрупулезность делает труд Гальтона не только научно- и исторически-ценным произведением, но и источником справочной информации.Английский поэт Джон Милтон имел талантливого музыканта-отца и судью-брата. Зафиксированы восемь поколений талантливых музыкантов в семье Баха, простирающиеся на 250 лет. Они произвели на свет 20 выдающихся музыкантов.Отец Моцарта был знаменитым скрипачем. У самого композитора было только два ребенка, доживших до зрелости, и оба были известны своими музыкальными способностями. Брат философа Джереми Бэнтэма описан в книге как «гениальный механик», а его племянник был выдающимся ботаником. Шесть родственников историка Генри Галлэма описаны как выдающиеся: его отец, его мать, дядя, два сына и дочь.Любой читатель, даже с самой малой искрой исторического любопытства, получит великое удовольствие, изучая генеалогические приложения и находя имена и их носителей в Википедии. Труд Гальтона является великолепным достижением человека европейской расы. Автор информирует нас о том, что он также хотел исследовать наследственность знаменитых людей в Китае. Наивысшей академической ежегодной наградой в Китае являлся «Хуан-Юань», описываемый как «из 400 миллионов – лучший классик и ученый в одном человеке». Один из друзей обещал Гальтону проверить степени родства между разными носителями Хуан-Юань, но не смог предоставить результаты до момента публикации книги. Однако автору удалось обнаружить историю женщины, двое из сыновей которой от разных отцов стали Хуан-Юань.Гальтон о расе и евгеникеКак и большинство исследователей наследственности, Гальтон не сомневался, что человеческие расы не равны между собой. Фактически же он пришел к размышлениям о семьях выдающихся людей из своих исследований, посвященных расовым различиям. В то время, как некоторые полагали, что наблюдаемые различия происходят из неравного доступа представителей разных рас к обучению, Гальтон заметил, что не было ни одного случая когда европейские путешественники были бы впечатлены интеллектуальными способностями африканских вождей, чье социальное положение по определению требовало политического и, значит, интеллектуального доминирования над сородичами. Сам автор много путешествовал, и, пребывая в Африке, он подмечал, что «ошибки, которые негры совершали в своих внутренних делах, были настолько нелепыми, детскими, глупыми и наивными, что я зачастую испытывал стыд за принадлежность к тому же биологическому виду.»По его оценкам, негритянские классы E и F соответствовали англо-саксонским С и D. Поразительно, что хотя Гальтон проводил свои исследования за полвека до изобретения IQ тестов, тем не менее он пришел к практически тем же самым выводам, что и более поздние психометрические исследования. Если средний IQ европейца равен 100 со стандартным отклонением 15, то один из 16 находится в 94-м перцентеле. Это примерно IQ 123. Негры в Америке характеризуются средним IQ 85, примерно с таким же стандартным отклонением. Учитывая, что средний американский негр имеет примерно 25% европейских генов (которые должны быть неплохого качества, поскольку лишь состоятельные белые были рабовладельцами), мы можем оценить средний IQ «чистых» негров в 78. Это число находится примерно посередине между реальными средними величинами IQ американских и африканских негров, то есть является достаточно разумной оценкой. Добавим африканским неграм несколько пунктов за неграмотность и вычтем от американских за европейские гены и культуру. Класс Е – это один из 413, что значит примерно IQ 120 для популяции со средним IQ 78 и стандартным отклонением 15. Снова повторюсь, что примерно один из 16 европейцев обладает IQ 120, попадая тем самым в класс С.Гальтон полагал, что австралийские аборигены находятся на один уровень ниже негров, что также неплохо подтверждается современными тестами.Автор использует расовые различия, чтобы проиллюстрировать насколько далеко может завести нас евгеника. «Ни история домашних животных, не эволюция вообще не дают оснований сомневаться, что может быть сформирована раса здоровых людей, которая будет настолько же интеллектуально и морально превосходить современных европейцев, насколько современные европейцы превосходят самую низкую из рас негров.»Ницше был еще более амбициозен, когда 15 лет спустя он вторил Гальтону в «Так говорил Заратустра»: «Что такое обезьяна по сравнению с человеком? По обстоятельствам, либо смехотворная пародия или же источник болезненного стыда. И точно так же человек будет относиться к сверхчеловеку: как смехотворная пародия или источник болезненного стыда.»Гальтон верил, что такая сверхраса уже однажды существовала. Они были обитателями Аттики между 530 и 430 годами до н.э. В течение более чем ста лет, 135,000 свободных мужчин проживало в городе. Только 45,000, одна треть из них, дожила до 50 лет. Если бы они были подобны современным европейцам, среди них не было бы ни одного, или только один человек на уровне европейского G (один из 79,000), но Гальтон насчитал четырех: Перикла, Платона, Сократа и Фидиаса (и это без учета Аристотеля, жившего немного позже, и который вполне мог бы быть самым умным из всех когда-либо живших людей). Гальтон оценил, что жители Аттики той эпохи превосходили современных европейцев на два уровня, примерно «настолько же, насколько наша раса выше африканских негров».Гальтон говорит, что если мы нуждаемся в доказательстве этого замечательного утверждения, то достаточно просто сравнить популярное искусство и литературу аттической эпохи с книгами, продающимися на английских вокзалах в конце 19 века. Как Ричард Линн отметил в своей книге «Евгеника», вряд ли нам пришлось бы ломать голову над тем, что Гальтон сказал бы по поводу современной поп-культуры. После полутора веков демографического взрыва без какой-либо заботы о качестве нашего генофонда, вполне возможно, что это было бы «я же вас предупреждал».Что вызвало дегенерацию европейцев? Успех древнего мира привлек множество менее интеллигентных мигрантов. Затем католическая церковь сделала свое дело, заставив принять обет безбрачия многих блестящих мужчин и женщин. Интеллектуалы же, которые не стали священниками, зачастую становились еретиками и преследовались разного рода инквизициями, созданными для поддержания религиозной ортодоксальности.Гальтон мог бы упомянуть Тридцатилетнюю войну, уничтожившую 15-30% населения Германии. Эти числа задвигают на второй план даже гекатомбы жертв коммунизма в 20 веке.Можно порассуждать, что воинствующее христианство создало европейца, который, хоть и сохранил свой природный интеллект, но потерял способность к нетривиальному мышлению, не скованному пределами социальных табу. И даже если он и думает о чем-либо «плохом», он совершенно однозначно не произносит это вслух.Во всяком случае, подобные спекуляции могли бы объяснить, почему такое множество белых с высоким интеллектом разделяют нелепости эгалитаризма. Когда мы сравниваем современного христианина или политкорректного либерала с нашим представлением о древних греках, то нетрудно поверить в деградацию современного европейского генофонда. Я, к примеру, не в состоянии вообразить себе Эпикура, сжигающего на костре своих врагов. Хочется надеяться, что в один прекрасный день мы создадим высокую породу европейцев, которая будет настолько же далека от Великого Инквизитора или «Комиссии по правам человека», насколько наше нынешнее племя далеко от Древних.Гальтон советует нации, желающей улучшить свой генофонд, принимать желательных иммигрантов. Он приводит пример значительного положительного вклада в английское общество, сделанного изгнанными из Франции гугенотами, а также напоминает о существовании 8 миллионов несчастных негров в США как пример того, что может произойти, когда качество человеческого материала не учитывается при принятии ключевых политических решений. Институт брака должен быть глубоко уважаем в обществе, и люди должны тщательно отбирать своих партнеров для передачи по наследству желаемых характеристик. Более детальные рекомендации изложены в последующих книгах и статьях Гальтона.Однако Гальтон отвергает обеспокоенность Томаса Роберта Мальтуза о перенаселении. Лишь высоко интеллигентная раса может всерьез озаботиться этой проблемой и в конце концов потерпеть поражение от тех рас, которые тем временем беззаботно размножаются. Вполне возможно, именно это и произошло в результате воздействия на массовое сознание тезисов таких книг как «Популяционная Бомба» Пола Эрлиха (1968) – интеллигентные белые были единственной расой, серьезно воспринявшей угрозу перенаселенности.Хотя методы исследования в труде Гальтона и могут показаться грубыми на наш просвещенный вкус, тем не менее, «Наследственность таланта...» - это превосходное произведение. Как открытия Дарвина просто нуждались во времени для накопления эмпирических доказательств, точно также идеи Гальтона о наследственности и расе выстояли испытание временем. Он создавал свои труды не только до выхода в свет книги «Кривая нормального распределения» (The Bell Curve), но даже до того, как стали известны открытия Менделя.Позже, Гальтон изобретет множество психометрических методов, которые докажут его правоту. Его полагают основателем психометрии, он открыл концепции корреляции, стандартного отклонения, и регрессии к среднему – и все эти методы ныне повсеместно используются для анализа явлений, не имеющих ничего общего с распределением интеллекта в человеческих популяциях.Интересно, что Чарльз Дарвин упоминается в «Наследственности таланта...», но отнюдь не как самый выдающийся представитель своей фамилии. Эта честь принадлежит его деду Эразму Дарвину, «врачу, физиологу, и поэту». И нам совершенно очевидно, что в перечислении потомков Эразма Дарвина не хватает еще одного из его внуков, сэра Фрэнсиса Гальтона. После того, как имена фамилии Дарвинов перечислены, автор пишет: «Я мог бы еще добавить имена некоторых других членов семьи, кто в меньшей степени, но вполне определенно также испытывают склонность к изысканиям в естественной истории.»Автор слишком скромен. Социальные науки, криминология, метерология, статистика и некоторые другие слишком многим обязаны Гальтону. Но к наиболее важному его совету мы до сих пор еще не набрались мудрости прислушаться.


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Аватар пользователя Anonymous
Anonymous (не проверено) чт, 06/01/2017 - 08:28

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Anonymous (не проверено) чт, 06/01/2017 - 08:28

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Аватар пользователя Anonymous
Anonymous (не проверено) чт, 06/01/2017 - 08:32

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Аватар пользователя Anonymous
Anonymous (не проверено) вт, 07/04/2017 - 09:00

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Аватар пользователя Mahmoud
Mahmoud (не проверено) сб, 07/15/2017 - 22:16

لا ينبغى اختيار افضل شركة ادارة محافظ بناءا على السمعة فقط يجب التحقق من الخدمات التى تقدمها الشركة.

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